CURRENT STATE

In view of the UN Sustainable Development Goals and the Paris Agreement, the EU has set ambitious targets for a fair and inclusive transition towards the decarbonization of the European economy (European Commission, 2019). According to the EU smart and sustainable mobility strategy (European Commission, 2020), the target is to reduce GHG emissions from transport by at least 90% by 2050 compared to 1990 levels. To achieve this, the EU is implementing a number of policies and initiatives aimed at promoting the use of low-carbon transport modes. Strategic priorities deriving from the smart and sustainable mobility strategy (European Commission, 2020) and the new EU urban mobility framework (European Commission, 2020) are the following: Doubling rail freight traffic by 2050; revising of CO2 emission performance standards for heavy-duty vehicles; enhancing multimodal connections with urban rail and inland waterways; shifting to electric and hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, as well as cargo bikes; developing new distribution models and infrastructure; capitalizing on dynamic routing and smart services; data collection/submission at least for GHG and pollutant emissions, noise, congestion, accidents, modal share, access to mobility services; development of multimodal freight terminals in TEN-T urban nodes; and integrating existing Sustainable Urban Logistics Plans (SULPs) in the Sustainable Urban Mobility Plan (SUMP) framework. In addition, the current TEN-T EU policy for the development of an EU-wide multimodal transport network aims to contribute to EU priorities for the environment and climate change, as well as the competitiveness and socio-economic and territorial cohesion (European Union, 2013). Implementing the EU policy, member-states are setting national targets to reduce emissions from transport, with different degrees of ambition. For example, Germany and the Netherlands have set the target of at least 30% of new car sales to be electric vehicles by 2030. European governments and companies are also investing for the upgrade of sustainable logistics and supply chain management infrastructure and services. In the postal sector, companies, such as PostNord in Sweden, have set ambitious targets to reduce their carbon footprint by promoting sustainable transport policies. More information on specific national policies and company initiatives are presented in the relevant subsections of Chapter 4. Overall, the EU is making significant efforts to promote the green transition of the transport sector  and to implement sustainable logistics and supply chain management practices, including urban deliveries and last-mile transportation. However, there are diverse needs and different levels of ambition between member-states, while there is still a long way to go to achieve the EU target to become “carbon-neutral” by 2050.

3.1 Carbon footprint calculation

Methods that companies can use to quantify their greenhouse gas emissions and identify areas for improvement are:
  • Carbon footprint calculation: This method involves measuring and quantifying the amount of greenhouse gas emissions produced by the company's transportation activities, such as fuel consumption, vehicle usage, and transportation routes. Companies can use this information to identify areas where emissions can be reduced, such as by switching to lower-carbon transportation modes, optimizing routes, or reducing vehicle usage.
  • Life Cycle Analysis (LCA): This method involves evaluating the environmental impact of the company's transportation activities throughout the entire life cycle of the products and services, from raw material extraction to disposal. LCA can help companies identify areas where emissions can be reduced, such as by using more sustainable transportation modes, reducing packaging, or improving energy efficiency.
  • Emissions reporting and monitoring: This method involves regularly monitoring and reporting on the company's emissions, such as through the use of emissions reporting software or by participating in mandatory or voluntary emissions reporting programs. This can help companies identify areas for improvement and track progress towards emissions reduction goals.
  • Auditing: This method involves conducting an independent assessment of the company's transportation activities to identify areas where emissions can be reduced. This can include an assessment of the company's fleet, transportation routes, and logistics operations.
  • Benchmarking: This method involves comparing the company's emissions to those of other companies in the industry, or to industry averages. This can help companies identify areas where they are performing well, and areas where they can improve.
  • Stakeholder engagement: This method involves engaging with stakeholders, such as customers, suppliers, and local communities, to understand their expectations and gather feedback on the company's transportation activities. This can help companies identify areas where they can improve their environmental performance.
  • Environmental management systems (EMS): An Environmental Management System (EMS) is a framework that a company or organization can use to manage their environmental responsibilities. ISO 14001 is the international standard for an EMS. It can help companies to identify and control the environmental impact of their activities, products or services, and to improve their environmental performance.
Indicators used: i. Output indicator – CO2 intensity per km of transport infrastructure; ii. Mobility indicator – CO2 intensity per unit of passenger-km and freight-km by project type; iii. Investment indicator – CO2 intensity per € of investment provides values for each transport mode that are consistent with the other indicators.  

3.2 Life cycle management and assessment of operations

The Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is a methodology that allows transportation and freight companies to evaluate the environmental impact of their products and services throughout their entire life cycle. LCA is a standardized methodology and is widely used by different industries and sectors to evaluate the environmental impact of their products and services. It is also a tool to identify opportunities to improve the environmental performance of a product or a service. In addition, there are also other methodologies such as the Environmental Product Declarations (EPD), which is a standardized tool that allows companies to communicate the environmental performance of their products, and the Carbon Trust Standard (CTS) which is a certification scheme that verifies the carbon footprint of a product or service. LCA typically includes the following steps:
  • Goal and scope definition: This step involves defining the goals and scope of the analysis, including the products and services to be evaluated, the functional unit, and the impact categories.
  • Inventory analysis: This step involves collecting data on the inputs and outputs of the products and services throughout their entire life cycle, including raw material extraction, transportation, manufacturing, use, and disposal.
  • Impact assessment: This step involves evaluating the environmental impact of the products and services based on the data collected in the inventory analysis. This can include calculating greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption, water use, and other environmental impacts.
  • Interpretation: This step involves interpreting the results of the impact assessment and identifying areas where the environmental impact of the products and services can be reduced.
  • Improvement: This step involves implementing changes to the products and services based on the results of the interpretation, in order to reduce their environmental impact.
  • Communication: This step involves communicating the results of the LCA to stakeholders, such as customers, suppliers, and regulators.
A life-cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool used to evaluate the environmental impacts of a product or service throughout its entire life cycle. For a courier company, a LCA would need to take into account the following aspects:
  • Raw materials: The extraction, processing, and transportation of raw materials used in the production of vehicles and packaging materials.
  • Manufacturing: The energy and resource consumption during the manufacturing of vehicles and packaging materials.
  • Transportation: The energy consumption and emissions from the transportation of vehicles and packaging materials to the company.
  • Use: The energy consumption and emissions from the operation of the vehicles and the transport of packages.
  • End-of-life: The disposal or recycling of vehicles and packaging materials at the end of their useful life.
  • Supply Chain: The energy consumption and emissions from the entire supply chain including suppliers and partners
  • Emissions: calculation of the emissions of greenhouse gases, particulate matter and other pollutants.
  • Energy use: calculation of the energy consumption during the whole life cycle
  • Water use: calculation of the water consumption during the whole life cycle
  • Waste generation: calculation of the waste generation during the whole life cycle
  • Environmental impact categories: calculation of the environmental impact of the company's activities in categories such as climate change, resource depletion, and human toxicity.
By conducting a LCA, a courier company can identify the key areas of its operations that have the greatest environmental impact and develop strategies to minimize those impacts.

3.3 Sustainable transport planning

Sustainable transport is defined as the provision of services and infrastructure for the mobility of people and goods— advancing economic and social development to benefit today’s and future generations—in a manner that is safe, affordable, accessible, efficient, and resilient, while minimising carbon and other emissions and environmental impact (The United Nations Secretary General’s High-Level Advisory Group on Sustainable Transport, 2016). The EU Transport Council defines the sustainable transport system as the system that (Eltis, 2019):
  • Allows the basic access and development needs of society to be met safely and in a manner consistent with human and ecosystem health, and promotes equity within and between successive generations
  • Is affordable, operates fairly and efficiently, offers choice of transport mode, and supports a competitive economy, as well as balanced regional development.
  • Limits emissions and waste within the planet's ability to absorb them, uses renewable resources at or below their rates of generation and uses non-renewable resources at or below the rates of development of renewable substitutes while minimising the impact on the use of land and the generation of noise.
In the above framework, sustainable transport planning is the process of designing, developing and evaluating sustainable transport systems through a holistic approach that involves considering the economic, social, and environmental impacts of transport systems aiming to mitigate or reduce negative impacts while enhancing positive ones. The process involves the interdisciplinary cooperation of experts and the participation of public and private stakeholders and representatives of civil society in the appropriate stages of the process. Sustainable transport planning is a circular process that involves the definition of a vision for sustainable transport, the assessment of the current situation to allocate transport and mobility problems, the development of alternative solutions or scenarios with a clear time horizon, the modeling and evaluation of alternative solutions or scenarios in order to select the most appropriate one, the detailed planning and implementation of the selected solution or scenario, the monitoring of the impacts during implementation and the evaluation of the implemented solutions or scenario to assess new challenges and opportunities for sustainable transport planning. A similar process is followed by the SUMP guidelines, which is the official EU framework for the strategic planning of cities to promote sustainable urban mobility (Eltis, 2021). Priority components of sustainable transport planning are the following:
  • Multimodal transportation: Considering all transport modes, according to their advantages, and their combined use in effective “door-to-door” trips, while placing public transport as the backbone of the transport system, complemented by active transport and micromobility.
  • Accessibility: Making sure that transport systems are inclusive and accessible to all members of society, including people with disabilities and vulnerable users, and provide adequate connectivity to all areas, including rural and under-serviced ones.
  • Health and livability: Designing transport systems that promote healthy, livable and sustainable communities by reducing congestion, noise and air pollution, improving the quality of the urban environment and conserving natural resources.
  • Safety and security: Planning for transport systems that are safe and secure for all users, with focus on pedestrians, cyclists and vulnerable users. In addition, ensure the security of service users and providers against cyber-threats.
  • Economic development: Enhancing the transport system in terms of efficiency and innovation in order to provide better jobs, economic competitiveness and boost commerce and overall socio-economic activity.
  • Social equity: Developing transport systems that are fair and equitable for all members of the community, regardless of their income, social status or other form of discrimination.
  • Climate change: Mitigating GHG emissions and related impacts and improving the resilience and adaptation of the transport system to climate change.
For the implementation of sustainable transport planning, a variety of tools and techniques are available for different stages of the process, such as transport modeling, on-site surveys and measurements, data analysis, land-use analysis, participatory planning and (cross-sector) policy analysis. Transport planners typically work in partnership with experts from other disciplines (urban planners, environmental experts, architects, engineers, social sciences and humanities, ICT experts etc.).

3.4 Sustainable logistics and supply chain management

Sustainable logistics and supply chain management is the process of managing the flow of goods, services, and information in a way that meets the needs of the present while protecting the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It involves considering the economic, social, and environmental impacts of logistics and supply chain activities and aims to reduce negative impacts while promoting positive ones. The components of sustainable logistics and supply chain management include:
  • Efficiency and effectiveness: This component involves optimizing logistics and supply chain processes to reduce waste, improve productivity, and increase efficiency.
  • Environmental sustainability: This component involves reducing the environmental impact of logistics and supply chain activities by reducing greenhouse gas emissions, conserving energy and natural resources, and reducing waste.
  • Social sustainability: This component involves ensuring that logistics and supply chain activities are fair and equitable for all stakeholders, including workers, suppliers, and customers.
  • Economic sustainability: This component involves ensuring that logistics and supply chain activities are economically viable and contribute to the long-term prosperity of the company and society as a whole.
  • Transparency and traceability: This component involves providing visibility and traceability throughout the logistics and supply chain, including the origin, movement, and final destination of goods.
  • Risk management: This component involves identifying and managing risks associated with logistics and supply chain activities, such as natural disasters, supply chain disruptions, and social unrest.
  • Innovation: This component involves continuously seeking out new and innovative ways to improve logistics and supply chain performance, including new technologies, business models, and partnerships.
To implement sustainable logistics and supply chain management, logistics and supply chain professionals use a variety of tools and techniques, such as logistics network design, transportation planning, inventory management, and supplier evaluation. They also typically work in partnership with other organizations to develop and implement sustainable logistics and supply chain strategies that support the overall sustainability goals of the company and society.

3.5 Green procurement

In general, sustainable procurement, often referred to as environmental or green procurement, is about guaranteeing the quality of the product, contract or service, as well as its environmental impact (Mojumder, et al., 2022), (GETENGA, 2022). Green procurement is a key practice in the green supply chain. They contribute to overall sustainability as well as to the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions by selecting sustainable suppliers and/or external partners. In particular, green procurement is based on suppliers' activities that incorporate environmental practices and take into account cost and quality criteria, while minimising environmental pollution and maximising environmentally friendly performance (Mojumder, et al., 2022), (Mak, et al.). Regardless of their size, all companies in all business sectors can benefit from using green procurement methods. Typically, green procurement tactics can be as basic as recycling office paper or purchasing renewable energy, or they can be more complex, such as imposing environmental requirements on suppliers and contractors (GETENGA, 2022). Green businesses should also take the environment into account when procuring goods and services. For example, by preventing the disposal of items after a single use and by supplying products that:
  1. use clean (environmental) technology and clean fuels,
  2. are more energy efficient,
  3. improve recyclability by containing more recycled content, limited packaging and greater durability,
  4. produce fewer toxic or harmful substances,
  5. emit fewer irritating or toxic substances during use or installation; or
  6. consume fewer water resources.
Through green procurement, environmental impacts are reduced and the process of selecting new materials and resources can create new opportunities and ultimately reduce production costs. At the same time, renewable energy production is becoming increasingly efficient and cheaper. As a result, the number of 'environmentally friendly' alternative materials is increasing day by day, and often at lower acquisition costs (Mak, et al.). The environmental benefits of sustainable markets often influence how money is used in the industries in which they operate. The only way to integrate environmental considerations into the procurement process and achieve green procurement is to consider things throughout their life cycle, from purchase to disposal (GETENGA, 2022). Local sourcing is preferable as the subsequent supply and distribution costs will be lower.  Local sourcing of raw materials increases the company's productivity by ensuring that products are recyclable, energy efficient, biodegradable and free of ozone depleting chemicals. This is likely to prevent globalised sourcing practices and lead to asymmetric economies of scale. Big data systems can also be used to avoid unnecessary procurement, thus reducing waste. The ISO 20400 (Sustainable Procurement) standard is an effective tool for green procurement. Finally, mandatory ESG reporting for listed companies is also pushing sustainable procurement to expand into the business world and is gradually affecting SMEs (Mak, et al.). In conclusion, green procurement refers to services and products that lead to minimising negative impacts on the environment and human health by continuously seeking quality products and services at competitive prices.

3.6 Eco-friendly packaging

Green packaging is becoming increasingly popular due to its benefits for both the environment and human health. It aims to minimise waste and reduce the negative impact of packaging materials on the environment. It is also commonly referred to as sustainable packaging, ecological packaging or environmentally friendly packaging. One of the most important features of green packaging is that it is made from renewable resources. These resources can be replenished naturally, which makes green packaging a more sustainable option than traditional packaging. In addition, green packaging is often biodegradable, meaning that it can be broken down by natural processes without harming the environment. There are several guidelines that companies can follow to achieve green packaging. The first is to reduce the amount of packaging material used. This can be done by designing packaging that is more efficient in terms of space and material usage. The second guideline is to reuse packaging when possible. This may include designing packaging that can be easily refilled or reused or using materials that can be easily reused. The third guideline is the recovery of packaging materials. This involves collecting used packaging and reusing it in new products. The fourth guideline is the recycling of packaging materials. This involves collecting used packaging and breaking it down into its component parts, which can then be used to make new products. Finally, the final guideline is the use of packaging materials that are broken down. These are materials that can be broken down naturally without harming the environment. Degradable materials include things like paper, cardboard and bioplastics (Mak, et al.). In conclusion, green packaging is a sustainable and environmentally friendly alternative that can help reduce packaging waste and minimize the negative impact of packaging on the environment. By implementing the guidelines of reduce, reuse, recover, recycle and degradation, companies can create packaging that is both usable and sustainable.

3.7 Energy efficient vehicles, buildings and equipment

Energy-efficient buildings and equipment are designed to use less energy and resources, while still providing the same or better level of functionality and comfort. Energy-efficient buildings are designed to use less energy to heat and cool the space, while energy-efficient equipment is designed to use less energy to perform its intended function. Energy-efficient buildings and equipment can be used in transportation and freight companies to minimize environmental impact in a number of ways:
  • Energy-efficient buildings: This involves designing and constructing buildings that are energy-efficient, such as those that use energy-efficient lighting and heating/cooling systems, and have high-performance insulation and windows. This can reduce the energy consumption of the building and lower greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Energy-efficient equipment: This involves using equipment that is energy-efficient, such as electric or hybrid vehicles, and energy-efficient heating, cooling, and lighting systems. This can reduce energy consumption and lower greenhouse gas emissions.
  • Smart building technologies: This involves using building management systems, lighting control systems, and other smart technologies to optimize energy usage and reduce consumption.
  • On-site renewable energy: This involves installing on-site renewable energy sources, such as solar or wind energy, to generate electricity for the building and equipment.
  • Energy-efficient transportation: This involves using energy-efficient transportation methods, such as electric or hybrid vehicles, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption.
By implementing energy-efficient buildings and equipment, transportation and freight companies can reduce their environmental impact, improve their reputation, and support the development of more sustainable products and services. Additionally, energy-efficient buildings and equipment can also help organizations to meet the governmental regulations and international standards.

3.8 Automated and digital operations

The rapid growth of digital services has not only given businesses more opportunities but has also exposed them to new vulnerabilities and increased challenges. To address these challenges, digital operations platforms offer flexible service delivery models that provide resilience to IT systems in a complex and interconnected virtual environment. Organizations are increasingly recognizing the importance of delivering exceptional experiences for their business customers and are investing heavily in streamlining and automating digital operations. Consequently, it has become vital to maximise service uptime to ensure a seamless experience for customers (Everbridge, n.d.). Digital operations are based on the workflow of a business supported by digital technology, either in part or in whole. The process flow is digitised, including work instructions, allowing operators to access them via laptops or mobile devices. This reduces errors and ensures uniformity of execution, resulting in increased efficiency and quality of business operations. Digital workflows and operations offer new opportunities such as real-time monitoring, visualization, analysis and optimization through advanced algorithms and artificial intelligence. Organisations are, however, challenged to join this digital transformation, which has led to a societal debate on the impact of AI on human work. It is important to differentiate the impact of work automation and autonomy from that of intelligent control and AI. Digital operations enable the automation of work, allowing machines to perform tasks previously done by humans. For example, robots can automatically complete tax forms, given sufficient data from digitally integrated financial transactions. Automated digital operations in product supply chains can include periodic preventive maintenance or replenishment. CNC machines, such as 3D printers, and digitally controlled flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) are other examples of digital automation. It is, however, important to note that digital operations do not necessarily mean that work is automated. Digital tax filing, for example, involves downloading the necessary tax forms, manually completing them on a computer or smartphone, and submitting them electronically (Boute, et al., 2021). In conclusion, digital operations involve digitizing the process flow, including work instructions, to enable efficient and uniform execution. They offer new opportunities through real-time monitoring, visualization, analysis and optimization. Although they enable automation of tasks, it is important to differentiate this from the impact of intelligent control and artificial intelligence. Digital operations provide adaptable and more efficient ways to manage complexity and deliver a variety of business services.

3.9 Employee engagement and education

Employee engagement and education are two critical components of implementing green transition successfully to an organization. Organizations can play a crucial role in the green transition by implementing sustainable policies, promoting green products and services, educating employees and stakeholders, monitoring and reporting on their environmental performance, collaborating with other organizations, engaging in advocacy, and investing in renewable energy. Employee engagement is a crucial element in organizational success. When employees are engaged, they are more likely to be productive, innovative, and committed to their job, leading to increased organizational performance (M. A West, J. F. Dawson - Employee engagement and NHS performance, 2012). Engaged employees are also more likely to stay with an organization, reducing turnover rates and recruitment costs. It is also enhances employee well-being, leading to reduced stress levels and increased job satisfaction (Anitha J. - Determinants of employee engagement and their impact on employee performance, 2014). Based on surveys in Hungary, the involvement of employees in activities supporting the green transition is currently carried out with little effectiveness. It is difficult for companies operating in the logistics sector to find opportunities to engage their employees. In addition, the development of green strategies also causes difficulties, and it is not really planned in the operation of a company. Without this, it becomes even more difficult to involve employees. According to the survey, it is also a challenge to create the appropriate financial background for the development of this type of green strategies, and the employer either does not have sufficient knowledge about this topic or cannot find a suitable expert with whose support the project could be implemented. Education is equally important in an organization, as it provides the necessary knowledge and skills that employees require to be successful in their roles. Education can be formal, such as obtaining a degree or certification, or informal, such as on-the-job training. Formal education provides employees with a solid foundation of knowledge, while informal education helps employees develop the necessary skills to perform their job effectively (R. Hidayat - Education and Job Training on Employee Performance, 2018). According to surveys, education related to the green transition in Hungary is not yet fully developed. Several transport companies are trying to educate their employees, especially drivers, on how to save fuel, for example. Unfortunately, based on the feedback, most companies do not have a similar training opportunity and do not plan to introduce it. There are still no adequate financial resources and staff of professionals who could support the implementation of the trainings. Employee engagement and education have a mutually reinforcing relationship. Engaged employees are more likely to participate in educational opportunities and seek out learning opportunities, while educated employees are more likely to be engaged and committed to their roles. Education can also lead to increased job satisfaction and provide employees with a sense of purpose and value, leading to increased engagement (M. A West, J. F. Dawson - Employee engagement and NHS performance, 2012).

3.10 Collaboration/networking with private and public organisations

Collaboration and networking between organizations, both public and private, have become increasingly important in recent years. There are a variety of reasons for this, but one of the most important is that such collaborations can provide access to resources and expertise that may not be available within the public sector (K. E. Proulx, M. A. Hager, K. C. Klein - Models of collaboration between nonprofit organizations, 2014). Collaboration with private organizations can provide access to resources and expertise that may not be available within the public sector. One of the key benefits of working with private organizations is their ability to bring in resources that the public sector may not have access to. For example, private companies may have specialized knowledge or equipment that can be used to address specific problems or challenges. Additionally, private organizations often have access to funding that can be used to support public initiatives that might otherwise be underfunded. In many cases, the private sector can also provide valuable expertise and support in areas such as marketing, technology, and logistics, which can help public organizations to achieve their goals more efficiently and effectively (L. Weinstein, J. Cook - The Benefits of Collaboration Between For-Profit Businesses and Nonprofit Arts- or Culture-Oriented Organizations, 2011). Based on our experiences, collaboration between public and private organizations can be particularly effective in addressing complex social and environmental issues that require a coordinated and comprehensive approach. By working together, public and private organizations can pool their resources and expertise to develop innovative solutions to difficult problems. For example, public-private partnerships have been used successfully to address issues such as climate change, poverty, and public health. Such partnerships can also help to ensure that public initiatives are sustainable and have a lasting impact, by leveraging private sector resources and expertise to create long-term solutions. Successful collaboration between public and private organizations requires a number of key elements. First, it is important to have clear communication between all parties involved, with a shared understanding of goals, objectives, and expectations. This can help to ensure that everyone is on the same page and working towards the same outcomes. Additionally, effective collaboration requires a willingness to compromise and adapt to changing circumstances. This means being flexible and open to new ideas, while also being able to work within the constraints of existing policies, regulations, and resources. Finally, collaboration requires a shared commitment to success and a willingness to work together to achieve common goals. By working together in this way, public and private organizations can achieve outcomes that benefit everyone involved (R. W. McQuaid - Theory of Organisational Partnerships – partnership advantages, disadvantages and success factors, 2016). According to the survey conducted in connection with the green transition, the majority of companies currently operating in the logistics sector in Hungary unfortunately do not have any kind of cooperation with other private or public companies. However, few companies try to compensate for their high pollutant emissions and participate in collaborations where, for example, they plant trees for environmental protection. According to the feedback, the companies do not have the capacity and do not have an adequate network of contacts, in order to be able to build a useful cooperation.

3.11 Regularly monitoring and reporting progress

A detailed regularly monitoring report on a transportation or freight company's sustainability performance should include the following components:
  • Environmental performance metrics: The report should include key environmental performance metrics such as greenhouse gas emissions, energy and fuel consumption, and waste generation.
  • Compliance status: The report should include information on the company's compliance status with relevant environmental regulations and standards.
  • Sustainability initiatives and progress: The report should provide information on the company's sustainability initiatives and progress towards achieving sustainability goals.
  • Stakeholder engagement and communication: The report should include information on the company's engagement and communication with stakeholders such as customers, employees, suppliers, and local communities.
  • Risk management: The report should include information on the company's risk management processes, including identifying and assessing environmental risks and implementing measures to mitigate these risks.
  • Continuous improvement: The report should detail the company's efforts in continuous improvement, including identifying areas for improvement and implementing changes to improve environmental performance.
  • Data on the use of renewable energy and carbon offsetting.
  • Data on the use of electric vehicles, if relevant.
  • Data on the use of sustainable packaging and materials.
  • Data on the use of sustainable logistics and supply chain management.
  • Data on the use of Green procurement.
  • Data on the use of Energy-efficient buildings and equipment.
  • Data on the Employee engagement and education.
  • Data on the Sustainable transportation planning.
This type of report would be useful for the company to track progress, identify areas for improvement and communicate with the stakeholders, including customers, investors, and government agencies, about their sustainability performance.

3.12 Certification

Certification is the process of awarding a written assurance (certificate) that the product, service or system in question meets specific requirements. It is the formal attestation or confirmation of certain characteristics of an object, person, or organization. This confirmation is often, but not always, provided by an independent body (Conformity Assessment or Certification Body). Certification of persons is the actual result and would normally require some form of external review or assessment (e.g. exam / certification test) that determines whether individuals had obtained certain knowledge and skills – hence be labeled as "competent to practice" in a specific area. The acquisition and recognition of knowledge, skills and professional qualifications (part of the overall ‘competence’ of persons) that contribute positively to sustainability is of major importance. With the objective of promoting recognition, EU had set frameworks and mechanisms (e.g. Directive 2005/36/EC, Europass) with policies and procedures for the recognition of qualifications. However, there are still major challenges to be addressed such as a) qualifications are only part of the overall competence and b) there is no widely accepted central system for registering and recognizing all the aspect of persons professional qualifications and competence. Hence, it lies on persons to be able to prove their competence where the recognition lies to a large extend on the certification of such competence using certification schemes. Among the certification processes and schemes that are currently implemented within the EU, ISO/IEC 17024:2012 titled “Conformity assessment — General requirements for bodies operating certification of persons” is the governing and most widely accepted industry standard. It contains principles and requirements for a body certifying persons against specific requirements, and includes the development and maintenance of a certification scheme for persons. Certain elements of this standard can be of use when developing the certification scheme for this project. In the context of this project, ISONIKE will create a Certification scheme for personnel of courier services companies using elements from ISO/IEC 17024:2012 in order to certify the last-mile green skills and delivery. . The Certification process of the scheme will follow the prerequisite education and training of Courier Services personnel and the assessment of the knowledge and skills obtained from the training. Certification may require deferent level for the courier service office personnel with the courier operators. Certification of personnel within the CGG project is an essential part for promoting environmentally sustainable courier operations. By training and certifying personnel of courier service providers, they can have a comprehensive knowledge and understanding of sustainable courier practices. This training typically involves the areas of the previous paragraphs. There are several benefits of certifying personnel for CGG:
  • Firstly, it helps in improving environmental performance in the courier industry, which is essential for meeting global climate goals. Sustainable courier practices can reduce the carbon footprint of courier operations, reducing greenhouse gas emissions into the environment.
  • Secondly, the Certification of courier services personnel for sustainable courier operations is a significant step in meeting the growing demand for sustainable courier services. As businesses and consumers increasingly demand environmentally sustainable practices in the delivery of products, courier companies that prioritize sustainable courier practices can easily satisfy this growing demand.
  • Thirdly, certifying personnel in sustainable courier practices can distinguish trained personnel from non-certified personnel. This provides reassurance to customers (and to stakeholders in general) that courier services are provided sustainably, boosting customer satisfaction and building trust in the courier industry.
  • Last (but not least), the Certification of personnel serves and a professional achievement that serves in the professional development of individuals.
Overall, the certification of courier services personnel within the context of this project is essential in promoting environmentally conscious courier operations, reducing the environmental impact of courier operations, and meeting the growing demand for sustainable courier services. By certifying personnel in sustainable courier operations, courier companies can demonstrate their commitment to sustainability and take significant steps towards building a greener future.

4.1 Questionnaire survey methodology

The questionnaire was addressed to two groups of stakeholders, i.e.:
  • Main target group, namely courier, postal and delivery services and public authorities responsible for policy making and management
  • Secondary target group, namely transport & logistics as well as climate and environmental strategy consultants, research institutions and other relevant organisations
The questionnaire survey contained questions to both target groups aiming at the following objectives:
  • Collection of information on the stakeholder organisations
  • Assessment of the level of awareness and knowledge regarding the current EU and national policy framework on the green transition of transport & logistics
  • Assessment of the significance of the above-mentioned policies for the green transition of transport & logistics, according to the stakeholders’ view
  • Collection of information on the implementation of sustainability management systems and relevant certifications, as well as other actions, initiatives and networks for green transition
  • Assessment of the significance of specific obstacles towards the green transition of a courier/postal/delivery service organization, according to stakeholders’ view
  • Assessment of the significance of specific priorities towards the green transition of a courier/postal/delivery service organization
Furthermore, a set of questions was exclusively addressed to the main target group aiming at the following objectives:
  • Collection of information by the main target group on the following: green transition strategies; training schemes for “green” skills to employees; schemes for the certification of employees’ “green” skills
  • Assessment of the significance of each of the above, if planned or implemented, regarding the impact on the organisations’ sustainable and efficient operations, according to the stakeholders’ view
  • Assessment of the extend that each of the above, if planned or implemented, covers specific priorities towards the green transition of a courier/postal/delivery service organization
The questionnaires were developed in English and translated to Hungarian, Romanian and Greek. The survey was conducted on-line using electronic forms (google forms) and via e-mail. A total of 43 filled-in questionnaires were collected with the target amount being 40 questionnaires. The questionnaire form is presented in Annex 1. The questionnaire results are presented in sub-section 4.3.

4.2 Interview methodology

The interview was addressed mainly to the main target group of stakeholders, i.e. different types of courier, postal and delivery services and public authorities responsible for policy making and management. The interview form is based on the questionnaire form, while more information was asked regarding specific questions of the questionnaire. The additional questions covered the following:
  • Collection of information on EU and national policy frameworks on the green transition of transport & logistics
  • Description of challenges towards the implementation of the green transition policy (e.g. institutional barriers, maturity and readiness etc.)
  • Collection of information on the organisation’s green transition strategy, if planned or implemented, the way it was derived and the significance of its impact on its sustainable and efficient operations
  • Collection of information on employee training/certification schemes, if planned or implemented, and the significance of their impact on its sustainable and efficient operations
  • Description of any other actions, initiatives and networks for green transition
  • Description of obstacles for the organisation’s green transition, priorities/measures to address them and impact of these priorities/measures
  • Collection of information regarding the coverage of the priorities for green transition by the organisation’s strategy and employee training/certification scheme, if planned or implemented
  • Sharing success stories regarding your organization’s activities towards green transition
 

4.3 Questionnaire and interview results

A total of 43 successfully completed forms were collected in the period 26/02/2023-03/04/2023, out of which 16 interviews (with embedded questionnaire) and 27 questionnaires (Figure 1). The headquarters of the organisations of participants are located in Cyprus, Greece, Hungary, Spain and the UK.

Figure 1: Distribution of completed surveys by survey type (source: Own elaboration)

More than 1/3 of the participating organisations correspond to the main target group, i.e. 7 courier services, 1 postal service, 6 delivery services and 2 public authorities. Research units from Universities and consultants represent the majority of the remaining organisation (Figure 2). The rest of the participating organisations represent the following sectors:
  • Shipping agencies
  • Industry
  • Information and Communication Technologies (ICT)
  • Manufacturers, including companies that manage perishable goods
  • Pharmaceuticals
  • Supermarket chains

Figure 2: Distribution of participating organisations by type (source: Own elaboration)

  The participating organisations were categorized according to the size of their enterprise, based on the Eurostat Glossary. The results are presented in Figure 3. Almost 2/3 of the enterprises are large or medium-sized. As expected from the type of organisations, most of them are private, for-profit companies. Public organisations are mainly public authorities and the University research units (Figure 4).

Figure 3: Distribution of participating organisations by enterprise size (according to Eurostat Glossary) (source: Own elaboration)

Figure 4: Distribution of participating organisations by sector (source: Own elaboration)

The main activity of ¾ of the participating organisations is international, either in EU or the world, and the main activity of the remaining ¼ is almost equally distributed between the local and national range (Figure 5). More specifically, the activity of 9 out of 14 courier, postal and delivey service organisations is international.

Figure 5: Geographic range of participating organisations’ activity (source: Own elaboration)

Almost ¾ of the representatives of participating organisations state that they have a general knowledge of the EU policy on the green transition of transport & logistics, while only 6 representatives declare that they are fully informed. Similarly, almost ¾ of the participants declare that they are aware of a national policy framework on the green transition of transport & logistics. Respondents have commented on the Greek national policy, mentioning the relevant commitments to promote sustainable transport and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the transportation sector. For example, in 2019 (FEK Β΄4893/31.12.2019), the Greek Ministry of Environment and Energy released the National Energy and Climate Plan (NECP), which includes targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector. The plan aims to increase the share of electric vehicles in the national fleet and to promote the use of alternative fuels such as natural gas and hydrogen. Further legislatives measures on electromobility were included in the law for the promotion of electromobility (FEK A’ 142/23.07.2020). Additionally, Greece has received funding from the European Union to support the transition to cleaner transport. For example, the European Union's Connecting Europe Facility has provided funding for projects to develop alternative fuel infrastructure, including liquefied natural gas (LNG) and compressed natural gas (CNG) refueling stations. Furthermore, Greece has implemented policies, such as the legislation of SUMP and micromobility (FEK Α 40/16.03.2021), to encourage the use of public transport and active transportation modes such as walking and cycling. Athens, for instance, has been working to expand its public transport network, including investing in electric buses, while several cities have implemented bike-sharing systems.

Figure 6: Level of awareness of participating organisations regarding the EU policy on the green transition of transport & logistics (source: Own elaboration)

Figure 7: Awareness of participating organisations regarding the corresponding national policy framework on the green transition of transport & logistics (source: Own elaboration)

The respondents were asked to evaluate the importance of the implementation of a “green” policy for transport & logistics to achieve the efficient and sustainable operations of a courier, postal or delivery service organization. The ¾ of participants find the implementation of such a policy as very important and necessary to achieve sustainability in the operations of courier, postal and delivery services.

Figure 8: Importance of the implementation of a “green” policy for transport & logistics to achieve the efficient and sustainable operations of a courier/postal/delivery service organization (source: Own elaboration)

Out of the 16 participating organisations of the survey’s main target group, i.e. courier/postal/delivery services and public authorities, the 75% do not have a green transition strategy. Half of the 12 organisations that do not already have a green transition strategy are planning to develop one (Figure 9). According to Figure 10, there are 6 organisations currently implementing or planning a green transition strategy that consider that this strategy has a significant impact on the organisation’s efficient and sustainable operations.

Figure 9: Planning and/or implementation of a green transition strategy (source: Own elaboration)

Figure 10: Significance of impact of the organisation’s planned or implemented green transition strategy on its sustainable and efficient operations (source: Own elaboration)

Only one participating organisation already implements a training scheme for the provision of “green” skills to employees, while half of the participants neither have nor plan a relevant scheme (Figure 11). Overall, the organisations that have, implement or plan such a scheme consider its impact as significant or very significant (Figure 12).

Figure 11: Planning and/or implementation of a green transition training scheme to provide "green" skills to its employees (source: Own elaboration)

Figure 12: Significance of impact of the organisation’s planned or implemented green transition training scheme to provide "green" skills to its employees (source: Own elaboration)

As illustrated in Figure 13, almost 2/3 of the main target group organisations neither have nor plan to implement a scheme for the certification of the “green” skills of their employees. None of the remaining organisations implement a certification scheme, while the majority of these organisations are planning to develop such a scheme (Figure 13). All of these organisations consider the implementation of the certification scheme of employee “green” skills as significant or very significant (Figure 14).

Figure 13: Planning and/or implementation of a scheme for the certification of employee "green" skills (source: Own elaboration)

Figure 14: Significance of impact of the organisation’s planned or implemented of a scheme for the certification of employee "green" skills (source: Own elaboration)

All responding organisations, i.e the main and secondary target groups, were asked regarding their participation in actions, initiatives and networks for the green transition (Figure 15). According to the collected data, such activities include participation in EU, national and local initiatives ranging from the Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental, social, and governance (ESG) standards for socially conscious investments to events (such as green transition webinars, car-free days, tree planting). In some cases, organisations undertake corporate initiative, such as efficient driving software and hardware installation on vehicle fleet, installation of electrical panels and charging stations, procurement for new “green” vehicles, energy management, recycling processes and annual recycling awards and other related initiatives (e.g. ELLA DIKA MAS). Research and consulting partners, as well as some of the industry organisations are participating in several projects related to sustainable transport (e.g. WairIt Project).

Figure 15: Participation in actions, initiatives, networks for green transition (source: Own elaboration)

More than half of the participating organisations (main and secondary target group) do not implement a sustainability management system (e.g. Environment Management System and/or Energy Efficiency Management System) nor relevant certifications (e.g. ISO 14001 or ISO 50001). About 1/10 implement such a system without relevant certification (Figure 16). The sustainability management systems implemented or planned by the organisations include monitoring, e.g. carbon emissions internal tracking tool, policy measures, e.g. carbon emission management policy framework, and management schemes, e.g. energy efficiency plan and Eco-Management and Audit Scheme (EMAS). The respondents mentioned the following certifications: ISO14001; ISO45001; ISO50001; ISO9001.

Figure 16: Implementation of a sustainability management system and does it maintain relevant certifications (source: Own elaboration)

The representatives of organisations from both the main and the secondary target groups were asked to evaluate the significance of specific obstacles towards green transition of a courier/postal/delivery service organisation, i.e.:
  • Increasing mileage and speed requirements
  • Congested transport networks
  • Energy use for maintaining perishable goods
  • Extensive use of plastic packaging and/or problematic waste disposal
  • Age and condition of fleets
  • Low adoption of "green" fuels and zero-carbon alternatives (e.g. cargo-bikes)
  • Energy consumption of buildings and equipment
  • Low adoption of automation in operations
  • Lack of data to monitor, manage and plan "green" operations
  • Insufficient know-how and expertise to monitor, manage and plan "green" operations
  • Insufficient "green" skills by drivers and operations' personnel (e.g. eco-driving)
  • Insufficient or ineffective strategic planning by courier/postal/delivery service providers
  • Insufficient or ineffective national policy framework
  • Insufficient or ineffective EU policy framework
  • Lack or insufficient common standards at EU or national level
All obstacles were considered significant or very significant by the vast majority of respondents. The most important barrier refers to the age and condition of the fleet. Other main barriers referring to vehicles and infrastructure are the low adoption of “green” fuels and zero-carbon vehicles and the energy consumption of buildings and equipment. Significant barriers at the operational level refer to the low adoption of automation in operations and the insufficient strategic planning and know-how for monitoring, managing and planning "green" operations. As regards the obstacles stemming from the policy domain, the insufficient or ineffective national policy framework is evaluated as the most important (Figure 17). One of the respondents highlighted that the effort to renew courier fleets with energy efficient, electric vehicles face challenges, as many companies do not have sheltered facilities to safely install charging stations, the autonomy of electric big trucks is still limited, while many large courier companies in main urban centers use independent truckers, who do not have the ability to purchase electric vehicles.

Figure 17: Significance of main obstacles towards green transition of a courier/postal/delivery service organisation (source: Own elaboration)

The representatives of organisations from both the main and the secondary target groups were asked to grade the significance of specific priorities towards green transition of a courier/postal/delivery service organisation, i.e.:
  • Life cycle management and assessment of operations
  • Regular monitoring of emissions and reporting progress towards specific goals
  • Transport & logistics strategic planning to introduce/adopt green solutions
  • "Green procurement" for sourcing materials and products from suppliers that meet environmental standards
  • Eco-friendly packaging
  • Energy efficient vehicles, buildings and equipment
  • Automation in transport and package handling operations
  • Employee awareness raising, training and engagement
  • Collaboration/networking with private and public organisations to advance green transition and share best practices
As it is shown in Figure 18, the energy efficiency of vehicles, buildings and equipment concentrated the highest number of evaluations as a very significant impact towards green transition. Other highly graded priorities refer to strategic planning, employee awareness, training and engagement and monitoring of emissions and reporting. However, all priorities were considered by the majority of respondents either with very significant impact or with impact of some significance. One of the respondents also indicated as a main priority the development of business models for green transition.

Figure 18: Significance of main priorities towards green transition of a courier/postal/delivery service organisation (source: Own elaboration)

The organisations of the main target group which plan or implement a green transition strategy were asked to grade the extent that this strategy covers the above mentioned priorities (Figure 19). It can be observed from the Figure that most of the priorities are covered by existing and planned green transition strategies. However, it should be noticed that only half of the main target group participants replied to the specific question.

Figure 19: Coverage of courier/postal/delivery service organisation’s green transition strategy regarding main priorities (source: Own elaboration)

The organisations of the main target group which plan or implement green transition training and/or certification scheme were asked to grade the extent that this scheme covers the above mentioned priorities (Figure 20). Only 5 of the 8 organisations that implement or plan such a scheme provided an answer to the specific questions. Eco-friendly packaging and green procurement are the least covered priorities in these organisations’ schemes.

Figure 20: Coverage of courier/postal/delivery service organisation’s green transition training and/or certification scheme for employees regarding main priorities (source: Own elaboration)

The transportation of goods and people is constantly increasing due to economic growth and the needs of the global market. For example, the raising trends of e-commerce, deriving from the development of ICTs but also from the restrictions of the Covid-19 period, persist, creating rising demand for freight transport. Largely depending on fossil fuel, the development of the transport sector is leading to significant negative impacts on energy consumption and emissions. Nowadays, this is extremely important due to the climate and energy crisis and the pursuit of the UN sustainable development goals. On the other hand, the transport sector has a very positive impact on the economy and employment. Thus, it is important to promote the transition of the sector towards green and climate-neutral solutions, comprising the appropriate policies, technologies and business models as well as the suitable awareness raising and training of both administrative and operative personnel. In this framework, taking into account that last-mile transportation is an integral part of the logistics chain, the purpose of the “Couriers Go Green” project is to develop a strategy and a training and certification scheme that will offer competencies and motivation to courier, postal and delivery organisations and their personnel in order to optimize their overall green environmental performance. Focusing on Europe, the current report briefly presents the corresponding policy priorities at EU level. The main strategies for the green transition of the EU economy are outlined in the European Green Deal, which sets ambitious targets for each economic sector including the transport sector. These strategies are interpreted into specific policies in the EU smart and sustainable mobility strategy and the new EU urban mobility framework. Furthermore, the current TEN-T policy is focusing on the deployment of smart and sustainable mutlimodal infrastructure with specific reference to the imprtance of green and effective last-mile transportation in cities that comprise the TEN-T urban nodes. According to this documentation, the target is to reduce GHG emissions from transport by at least 90% by 2050 compared to 1990 levels. This is historically the most ambitious target for the EU transport and mobility policy and requires the combination of a wide array of legislation, standardisation, innovation, policy and cooperation to achieve awareness raising, engagement and action. Implementing the EU policy and SDGs, member-states are setting national targets to reduce emissions from transport, with different degrees of ambition and different levels of achievement. The current report reviews the main tools and methods of international practice, with focus on the EU experience, for the green transition of transport. The tools and methods which were identified refer to the following:
  • Carbon footprint calculation in order to assess the amount of greenhouse gas emissions produced by an organisation’s activity in different activity areas so as to identify problems and opportunities to reduce their carbon footprint.
  • Life cycle management and assessment of operations regarding their environmental impact throughout the entire life cycle of products and services. LCA not only allows for the investigation of areas for the improvement of environmental performance but also to identify the appropriate stages throught time from raw material to product disposal and/or recycling.
  • Sustainable transport planning refers to the circular process of designing, developing and evaluating sustainable transport systems in a holistic and interdisciplinary approach. This approach for urban passenger mobility and freight transport in European cities is embedded in the SUMP and the SULP guidelines. Multimodality, accessibility, health and livability, safety and security, economic development, social equity and environmental sustainability are key priorities in these guidelines. Different on-site techniques and desktop analysis tools are combined in the appropriate phases of sustainable transport planning, enhanced by the support of ICTs.
  • Sustainable logistics and supply chain management is the process of managing the flow of goods, services, and information in a sustainable way for current and future needs by incorporating the economic, social, and environmental impacts of logistics and supply chain activities. Efficiency and effectiveness, environmental, social and economic sustainability, transparency and traceability of door-to-door operations, risk management and exploitation of technological and managerial innovation are key components. Nowadays, different management tools, including ICT-based software and equipment, are integrated into the different steps of supply chain.
  • Green procurement aims to guarantee the quality of a product, contract or service Through green procurement so that environmental impacts are reduced and the process of selecting new materials and resources can create new opportunities and ultimately reduce production costs.
  • Eco-friendly packaging (or green packaging or ecological packaging) aims to minimise waste and reduce the negative impact of packaging materials on the environment. Main features are the use of renewable materials and resources, the reduction of the amount of packaging material, the reuse of packaging when possible, the recovery and recycling of packaging materials and the use of packaging materials that are broken down naturally without harming the environment.
  • Energy efficient vehicles, buildings and equipment are designed to save energy and resources, while providing high quality service. This is achieved through various means, e.g. the installation of appropriate infrastructure and equipment for energy efficient heating and cooling, lighting, charging of vehicles etc., the use of on-site renewable energy production and the implementation of smart building technologies to monitor and dynamically optimize energy consumption.
  • Automated and digital operations, related to the request for continuously improved services but also to new vulnerabilities and increased challenges, are based on the workflow of a business supported by digital technology, either in part or in whole.
  • Employee engagement and education by an organisation is likely to result to higher employee engagement and commitment to the organisation that is expected to lead to higher productivity, innovation and overall performance. In addition, the impact is positive for the employees, leading to reduced stress levels and increased job satisfaction.
  • Collaboration/networking with private and public organisations aiming to provide access to resources and expertise that may be available only trhough collaboration. Main components are the clear communication and understanding between all parties involved, flexibility and adaptability and shared commitment and vision.
  • Regularly monitoring and reporting progress of a transport company's sustainability performance is conducted through the following: a. Monitoring of specific environmental performance metrics; b. Assessment of the compliance status to relevant environmental regulations and standards; c. Planning for participation in sustainability initiatives and progress reporting; d. Stakeholder engagement and communication actions which involve customers, employees, suppliers, and local communities; e. Risk management processes; f. Clear goals and tangible targets for continuous improvement; and g. Systematically organised databases on relevant data regarding the company’s operations and performance.
  • Certification is the process of awarding a written assurance (certificate) that the product, service or system in question meets specific requirements. This formal attestation or confirmation of certain characteristics can be provided by an independent body (Conformity Assessment or Certification Body). The that contribute positively to sustainability is of major importance. In the context of certifying knowledge, skills and professional qualifications, EU is setting frameworks and mechanisms (e.g. Directive 2005/36/EC, Europass). However, there are still challenges and limitations in the certification process. ISO/IEC 17024:2012 is the governing and most widely accepted industry standard, including principles and requirements for a body certifying persons against specific requirements, and includes the development and maintenance of a certification scheme for persons. Certain elements of this standard can be of use when developing the certification scheme for this project.
In order to collect data and information by stakeholders, a questionnaire survey and a set of interviews were addressed to both the project’s main target group, i.e. courier, postal and delivery services and public authorities responsible for policy making and management, and secondary target group, i.e. transport & logistics as well as climate and environmental strategy consultants, research institutions and other relevant organisations. According to the survey and interview results, almost ¾ of respondents have a general knowledge of the EU policy on the green transition of transport & logistics while an equal share of respondents are not informed on the corresponding national policy framework, leading to the conclusion that there is a gap of transfering policy from the EU to the national level. The significance of this gap is highlighted by the fact that the ¾ of participants find the implementation of such a policy as very important and necessary to achieve sustainability in the operations of courier, postal and delivery services. The respondents evaluated the main obstacles towards green transition of a courier/postal/delivery service organisation and found that all obstacles were either somewhat or very significant. The most important barrier refers to the age and condition of the fleet, which is linked to another main barrier, i.e. the low adoption of “green” fuels and zero-carbon vehicles. Other main barriers refer to the energy consumption of buildings and equipment, the low adoption of automation, the insufficient strategic planning and know-how for monitoring and management and the insufficient or ineffective national policies. The respondents were also asked to grade the main priorities towards green transition of a courier/postal/delivery service organisation. All priorities received high scores but, in relation to the above-mentioned obstacles, their selections focused more on the energy efficiency of vehicles, buildings and equipment, the need for effective strategic planning, the employee awareness, training and engagement and the monitoring of emissions and reporting. This conclusion is aligned with the the purpose of the  project to contribute towards the development of a green transition strategy and training/certification scheme. Out of the 16 participating organisations of the main target group, those that do not have nor plan for a green transition strategy, a training scheme to provide "green" skills to its employees and a certification scheme for these skills correspond to approximately 30%, 50% and 60% respectively. Almost all organisations that implement or plan such strategies or schemes consider that they have a positive impact on green transition of their operations. More specifically, the great majority of respondents stated that their strategy or their corresponding training and certification schemes cover to a significant extent the afore-mentioned priorities for the green transition of their operations. This indicates the importance of the strategies, training and certification schemes for the green transition of transport operations despite the currently limited deployment of such initiatives.
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